I have problems seeing swimming sperm under the dissecting scopes.

Magnification is typically not the problem since sperm can be adequately visualized even at a total magnification of only 25 X. Usually, difficulties observing sperm are often associated with improper or insufficient illumination. Bottom (transmitted) illumination is preferred. If adjustments are possible, try increasing or decreasing the intensity of the light source. Also, if a […]


A brief overview of a model plant system C-Fern® is a specially derived cultivar of the tropical homosporous fern, Ceratopteris richardii, commonly referred to as “water fern”, which is also used as an aquarium plant.