Under the standard temperature and light conditions, C-Fern develops in about 10-12 days from a single-celled haploid spore to sexually mature gametophytes in which eggs are fertilized by sperm. Mature spores are produced by about 80-90 DFS.

Overview of C-Fern lifecycle
  • Spore germination is begins three to four days from starting cultures (DFS)
  • Spore germination is complete by about six DFS.
  • Male and hermaphroditic gameotphyte are sexually mature at about 10 to 12 DFS.
  • Fertilization of eggs by motile (swimming) sperm occurs after sexual maturity or about 10-18 DFS.
  • Sporophyte embryos are visible at about X-Y DFS
  • Sporophyte produce fertile fronds (fronds which bear spores) at about X-Y DFS
  • Sporophytes produced spores which can be harvested at about X-Y DFS